By Hassan Raza (auth.), Hassan Raza (eds.)
Graphene is a wonderfully two-dimensional single-atom skinny membrane with 0 bandgap. It has attracted large recognition because of its linear dispersion round the Dirac aspect, very good shipping homes, novel magnetic features, and coffee spin-orbit coupling. Graphene and its nanostructures can have power purposes in spintronics, photonics, plasmonics and electronics. This booklet brings jointly a staff of specialists to supply an summary of the main complicated issues in conception, experiments, spectroscopy and purposes of graphene and its nanostructures. It covers the cutting-edge in tutorial-like and review-like demeanour to make the e-book necessary not just to specialists, but in addition newbies and graduate students.
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The Raman features at approximately 1,340 and 1,620 cm 1 are the disorder-induced D and D 0 bands, respectively. The disorder-induced D and D 0 bands are observed in spectra 1 and 2, but not in spectrum 3, since spectrum 3 was taken at an interior region of the HOPG with a crystalline order (see inset to Fig. 9a). As shown in Fig. 9a, the D band is about four times less intense in spectrum 2 compared to spectrum 1, whereas the D 0 -band intensity remains almost constant for both spectra. The different intensities observed for the D band in spectra 1 and 2 indicate that the D-band intensity depends on the structure of the edges.
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