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Since voltage or current is only varied from 0 to some positive level the pulses are unipolar, hence the name unipolar non-return to zero. There are several problems associated with unipolar non-return to zero signaling which make it unsuitable for use as a signaling mechanism on wide area network digital transmission facilities. These problems include the need to sample the signal and the fact that it provides residual dc voltage buildup. Since two or more repeated marks or spaces can stay at the same voltage or current level, sampling is required to distinguish one bit value from another.

When communications carriers engineered their early digital networks they were based upon the use of copper conductors, as ®ber optics did not exist. Communications carriers attempt to do things in an economical manner. 11. 11 Transformer coupling 16 _______________________________ FUNDAMENTAL WIDE AREA NETWORKING CONCEPTS which is only possible if residual dc is eliminated. Thus, communications carriers began to search for an alternative signaling method. Unipolar return to zero One of the ®rst alternative signaling methods examined was unipolar return to zero (RTZ).

Using a digital service, data is transmitted from source to destination in digital form without the necessity of converting the signal into an analog form for transmission over analog facilities as is the case when modems or acoustic couplers are interfaced to analog facilities. To understand the ability of digital transmission facilities to transport data requires an understanding of digital signaling techniques. Those techniques provide a mechanism to transport data end-to-end in modi®ed digital form on LANs as well as on wide area networks that can connect locations hundreds or thousands of miles apart.

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