By International Federation of Automatic Control, A. De Giorgio, C. Roveda
Standards for choosing acceptable applied sciences below varied Cultural, Technical and Social stipulations covers the complaints of the IFAC symposium held in Bari-Italy on may well 21-23, 1979.
The e-book begins by way of offering common introductory survey papers, together with issues at the challenge of acceptable know-how, the redirection of know-how, industrialization in constructing international locations, and correct know-how move, and technical papers on basic standards. The textual content additionally tackles papers concerning the program of the social cost-benefit research to the matter of selecting between substitute creation tactics; fiscal evaluate of other concepts; and a few social results of expertise improvement in Europe. Case reviews on microelectronics and survey and technical papers on infrastructure making plans also are defined. The ebook extra bargains with papers on human, social and academic elements that effect technological move and innovation, in addition to the dynamics of know-how move less than diverse cultural, technical, and social stipulations. The textual content is valuable to engineers.
Read or Download Criteria for Selecting Appropriate Technologies Under Different Cultural, Technical and Social Conditions. Proceedings of the IFAC Symposium Bari, Italy, 21–23 May 1979 PDF
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Extra resources for Criteria for Selecting Appropriate Technologies Under Different Cultural, Technical and Social Conditions. Proceedings of the IFAC Symposium Bari, Italy, 21–23 May 1979
The final outcome of this procedure (2) is a typology of compatible sectors or products or technologies, ordered in a hierarchical prio rity. The results obtained are a combination of intuitive "heuristic" evaluations and an "objective" analytical framework, through which subjective evaluations are processed and tested. The three steps demand now a more detailed in vestigation. 3a Analysis of foreign trade balance As we said above, the starting point of the assessment procedure is the analysis of the trade balance of the single sectors.
Strategy without tactics will never work. No matter what technological innovation strategy a de veloping nation adopts, if it turns out that new enterprises cannot bear the start-up costs of technological shifts, or that there are no customers for the innovators products, the strategy will fail. Such failures are costly for the developing countries. Failures due to inability to meet start up costs are particularly problematic to develop ing self-reliance. Say it takes six or eight years of operation before a new technical system attains the efficiency needed to be profitable, a common situation for a c or d type technology starting up in a developing nation.
The second point is that, of course, the criteria of choice are different depending on the person or institution making the decision. For example, the situation is not the same for the choice of a production system by an entrepreneur having or seeing a market and the choice of production systems at the national level where macroeconomic, welfare, and other political considerations prevail. Assuming that we look at what is the appropriate choice from some distance (some Archimedic point) most of the criteria that have been mentioned in the literature can be classified as follows: I.