By John S.
From the publication - Preface:
This handbook has been compiled to supply time frames, hard work crews and kit spreads to help the estimator in capsulizing an estimate for the install of cross-country pipelines, marshland pipelines, nearshore and surf region pipelines, submerged pipelines, wharfs, jetties, dock amenities, single-point morring terminals, offshore drilling and creation structures and kit and appurtenances put in thereon.
The time frames and exertions and kit spreads which look all through this handbook are the results of many time and process reviews performed below various stipulations and at destinations during the global; those time frames and hard work and gear spreads replicate a whole, independent view of all operations concerned.
When one is engaged in compiling an estimate from any info offered through others, as is the case with this handbook, he should still view it in an aim mild, giving due attention to the character of the venture handy and comparing all goods which can have an effect on the productiveness of work and all different parts concerned.
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Additional info for Cost Estimating Manual for Pipelines and Marine Structures
Peak Demand 42 Handbook of Energy Audits during the preceding 11 months. This can have a potentially significant effect on your utility bill if you have a month or two of high demand, for summer air conditioning for example, and lower demand for the remainder of the year. Those two summer months would establish your demand charges for the entire year and you would be billed at that rate each month whether you reach that kW peak or not. Focusing on reducing demand during those months of highest use would become a top priority for reducing demand charges throughout the year.
The primary method of reducing heat conduction through ceilings/ roofs, walls, and floors is by adding insulation. Installing vapor barriers in ceilings/roofs and walls, caulking utility penetrations, and maintaining door closures and weatherstripping is also effective in reducing infiltration. To control or reduce solar heat gains through the roof or Energy Accounting and Analysis 31 glazing areas, a reflective surface or film can be used. For glazing areas, the installation of interior or exterior shading and films will also help control solar heat gain.
As you 24 Handbook of Energy Audits develop your list, think about how each system uses energy and where potential savings may exist. You can add more specific components to the list as you learn more about the plant or building. By determining seasonal and base loads, then apportioning energy use among specific building systems such as heating, cooling, lighting and hot water, it becomes easier to identify areas with the greatest savings potential and target the energy audit activities to those systems.