By Victor Ian Hanby BSc, PhD, CEng, MInstE, MCIBSE (auth.)
Combustion is especially a lot an interdisciplinary subject, drawing jointly parts of chemistry, fluid mechanics and warmth move. it truly is an component in lots of undergraduate measure programmes, starting from a pivotal function in gas technology via to an element a part of classes in chemical, strategy and development companies engineering. for lots of scholars in these disciplines the place combustion in heating plant is a crucial a part of their experiences, there are frequently difficulties in coming to grips with the fundamental rules underlying the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. specifically, the techniques of chemical and similar thermodynamic alterations can turn out tricky to assimilate. The clinical literature facing combustion has a tendency to be particularly polarised, with a wealth of literature aimed toward the professional reader, yet at a uncomplicated point the basics of this crucial technique are frequently handled really tersely in textbooks on thermodynamics. the target of this publication is to supply an advent to the fundamental rules of the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels in heating plant for structures and business approaches. In these chapters the place perform in challenge fixing could make a good contribution to knowing, a few numerical difficulties were integrated. Acknowledging the ever-widening use of pcs in technical schooling, a few algorithms that are simply coded up for fixing numerical difficulties were included within the textual content. those can turn out really worthy in, for instance, the calculation of definite fluid homes, both to be used in hand calculation or for incorporation into higher programs.
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Extra resources for Combustion and Pollution Control in Heating Systems
As was shown in Chapter 3. 1 and a calorific value of S4 MJ kg- l (gross). 3 MJ kg-l. 2 shows that water vapour has a higher specific heat than the other combustion products, which will lower the adiabatic flame temperature. 1. In each case combustion is stoichiometric and the initial temperature of the air and fuel is 2SoC. It can be seen that there is quite a small variation in the calculated flame temperature, given the wide variation between the calorific values of these fuels. This 'conformity' is due to the effect of the hydrogen in the fuel discussed above.
We can envisage an elementary open system within a boundary containing a working fluid, which is initially a mixture of fuel and air (Fig. 1). There are two limiting cases which will cover the combustion of this mixture; the mixture could be ignited and burned at constant pressure (as occurs in boilers), or combustion could take place at constant volume. Because we are concerned here with combustion in boilers and other heating systems, we will focus our attention on the case of combustion at constant pressure.
The method starts by finding the undissociated adiabatic flame temperature, and then this temperature is used to obtain the equilibrium flue gas composition. The calorific value of the fuel is adjusted according to the amount of hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced and the energy equation solved for the current flue gas composition to give a recalculated flame temperature. This process is repeated until satisfactory convergence is achieved. Such iterative procedures lend themselves very well to computational methods, but a manual example effectively illustrates the steps described.