By George E. Stelmach, Barry G. Hughes (auth.), Professor Dr. Wolfgang Prinz, Professor Dr. Andries F. Sanders (eds.)
The factor of the connection among cognition and motor strategies will be - and has been - raised at varied degrees of research. on the neurophysiological point it refers back to the interactions among afferent and efferent info. on the neurological and neuropsychological point it pertains to the mutual dependencies among the sensory and the motor a part of the mind, or, extra accurately, among sensory and motor features of varied elements of the mind. In psychology, the difficulty lower than debate issues, at a molecular point, the connection among percep tion and circulation or, at a extra molar point, the relatives among cognition and motion. For the identify of this publication we intentionally made up our minds to mix phrases which are taken from of those degrees ,in order to stress either the multilevel constitution of the problems concerned and the multidis ciplinary nature of the next contributions. even supposing the time period "cognition" has been greatly misused lately (at least in psychology), it really is nonetheless the single time period to be had to function a handy collective identify for all types of cognitive approaches and functions.
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However, evidence has also been accumulating that apraxics are as affected in performing unfamiliar tasks as they are in carrying out complex movements that may be considered elements of their highly practiced behavioral repertoire (cf. , 1975). With a mind to testing the involvement of prior experience in dyspraxia, Kimura and Archibald (1974; see also Kimura, 1982) compared performance by left- and right-hemisphere patients of familiar tasks involving relatively complex sequences of movements, with the performance of unfamiliar tasks that also included motor sequences, and tasks that involved positioning the hand or fIngers but did not require the integration of successive motions.
The examples in this section can be exploited to highlight one further point: Feedback can be expected to operate at multiple levels. In the experiment of Bizzi et al. (1978), reflexive load compensation was shown to provide fine tuning to the simple movements. In the experiment of Grillner (1973), the obstacle hitting the cat's paw was found to signal the spinal pattern generator to call for a disruption in the normal gait. If either of these mechanisms failed to provide the needed corrections, then higher level centers would be brought into play.
In accordance with Kimura's ideas, it may be argued that the planning and "articulation" of manual behavior follow a similar principle: the pre-central motor areas are involved in the initiation and performance of highly practiced manual behavior, while the parietal lobe, consistent with the definition of ideational apraxia, is involved in the planning of manual motor sequences adapted to the (arbitrary) task at hand. , 1969), in whom we may assume essential integrity of both hemispheres, are compared with the vast majority of studies of patients with unilateral brain-damage, whose lesions mayor may not have affected callosal fibers, a paradox may be observed that does not appear to have a simple explanation.