By Fei Yuan
Many new topologies and circuit layout suggestions have emerged lately to enhance the functionality of energetic inductors, yet a entire therapy of the speculation, topology, features, and layout constraint of CMOS energetic inductors and transformers, and a close exam in their rising purposes in high-speed analog sign processing and knowledge communications over twine and instant channels, isn't to be had. This publication is an try to supply an in-depth exam and a scientific presentation of the operation ideas and implementation information of CMOS energetic inductors and transformers, and an in depth exam in their rising functions in high-speed analog sign processing and information communications over twine and instant channels.
The content material of the e-book is drawn from lately released examine papers and aren't on hand in one, cohesive publication. equivalent emphasis is given to the idea of CMOS energetic inductors and transformers, and their rising functions. significant matters to be coated within the publication comprise: inductive features in high-speed analog sign processing and knowledge communications, spiral inductors and transformers вЂ“ modeling and barriers, a historic point of view of gadget synthesis, the topology, characterization, and implementation of CMOS energetic inductors and transformers, and the appliance of CMOS energetic inductors and transformers in high-speed analog and electronic sign processing and information communications.
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Additional info for CMOS Active Inductors and Transformers: Principle, Implementation, and Applications
14) is due to the floating configuration of the active inductor. The capacitance and conductance at the interface nodes 1+ and 1− and those at the internal nodes 2+ and 2− will become C2 /2 and Go2 /2, and C1 /2 and Go21 /2, respectively. 14) without modification. 5. Lossy floating gyrator-C active inductors. C1 and Go1 , C2 and Go2 represent the total capacitances and conductances at nodes 1 and 2, respectively. 2 Characterization of Active Inductors In this section, we investigate the most important figure-of-merits that provide quantitative measures of the performance of active inductors.
38) where φ(ω) is the phase of the tank impedance. The quality factor of a passive LC tank at a given frequency is independent of the current of the tank. Unlike passive LC tanks, the inductance of the active inductors varies with the current / voltage of the inductors. 39) Imin where Imin and Imax are the minimum and maximum currents of the transconductors of active inductors, and Q(ωo , i) is the instantaneous quality factor at frequency ω and channel current i provides an effective mean to quantify the quality factor of active inductors, especially when active inductors are employed in circuits that are operated in a large-signal mode, such as LC tank oscillators.
We continue to assume that the transconductances of the transconductors are constant. 12) The admittance looking into port 2 of the gyrator-C network is obtained from Y Iin V2+ − V2− C2 Go2 + + = s 2 2 = 1 . 5 with its parameters given by Rp = 2 , Go2 Cp = C2 , 2 Go1 /2 , Rs = Gm1 Gm2 L= C1 /2 . 14) is due to the floating configuration of the active inductor. The capacitance and conductance at the interface nodes 1+ and 1− and those at the internal nodes 2+ and 2− will become C2 /2 and Go2 /2, and C1 /2 and Go21 /2, respectively.