Download Circulating Nucleic Acids in Early Diagnosis, Prognosis and by Peter B. Gahan PDF

By Peter B. Gahan

DNA and RNA fractions should be remoted from quite a few physique fluids together with complete blood, serum, plasma, urine, saliva and cerebrospinal fluid from either sufferers and fit members. Such isolates could be exploited within the early detection of medical problems, stratification of sufferers for remedy, therapy tracking and scientific follow-up. moreover, the use in fetal medication permits the early detection of fetal intercourse, Rh issue and aneuploid issues in addition to following either fetal and untimely born toddler improvement. This quantity is meant as a primer should you have an interest in coming into the sphere of circulating nucleic acids.

The components coated during this quantity include:

· historical past and common biology of circulating nucleic acids

· Methodology

· purposes of circulating nucleic acids

· caliber Assurance

· Ethics

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Extra info for Circulating Nucleic Acids in Early Diagnosis, Prognosis and Treatment Monitoring: An Introduction

Sample text

The latter are a class of small RNA molecules found within the eukaryotic nucleus and having an average length of ca 150 nucleotides. Their primary function concerns the processing of pre-mRNA (hnRNA) in the nucleus. There are a variety of small non-coding RNAs involved in cfNAs including miRNA that is important in a number of studies discussed throughout this book. It involves a single-stranded RNA of 20–25 nucleotides functioning in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression through binding to the 30 -untranslated region of the target mRNAs.

Apoptosis This would appear to present a major contributor to cfDNA. cfDNA in blood is double-stranded [1, 37] and forms a ladder pattern when separated by agarose gel electrophoresis [32, 38, 39] with fragment sizes ranging from 60 to 1,000 bp. The fragment ends are capped showing them to be present in the form of nucleosomes or apoptotic fragments. g. tumors. The typical electrophoretic ladder pattern of DNA from apoptotic cells is initially of 50–300 kb fragments that mainly fragments into multiples of nucleosomal fragments (180–200 bp).

Atamaniuk J, Ruzicka K, Stuhlmeier KM, Karimi A, Eigner M, Mueller MM (2006) Cell-free plasma DNA: a marker for apoptosis during hemodialysis. Clin Chem 52:523–526 43. Viorritto IC, Nikolov NP, Siegel RM (2007) Autoimmunity versus tolerance: can dying cells tip the balance? Clin Immunol 122:125–134 44. Goebel G, Zitt M, Zitt M, Mu¨ller HM (2005) Circulating nucleic acids in plasma or serum (CNAPS) as prognostic and predictive markers in patients with solid neoplasias. Dis Markers 21:105–120 The Biology of CNAPS 35 45.

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