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By Mikel L. Sanchez

A heavy steel is a member of an ill-defined subset of parts that express metal homes, which might in most cases comprise the transition metals, a few metalloids, lanthanides, and actinides. many alternative definitions were proposed - a few according to density, a few on atomic quantity or atomic weight, and a few on chemical houses or toxicity. The time period heavy steel has been referred to as 'meaningless and deceptive' in a IUPAC technical record as a result contradictory definitions and its loss of a 'coherent medical basis'. As mentioned under, reckoning on context, heavy steel can comprise components lighter than carbon and will exclude a few of the heaviest metals. One resource defines 'heavy steel' as '...common transition metals, similar to copper, lead, and zinc. those metals are a reason behind environmental toxins (heavy-metal toxins) from a few assets, together with lead in petrol, business effluents, and leaching of steel ions from the soil into lakes and rivers via acid rain'.

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Impacts of the Mining and Smelting Activities to the Environment 29 Figure 14. Spatial distribution of factor 2 scores in attic dust (left) and soil (right; Šajn, 1999 with additional data) in unpolluted areas of Slovenia. Characteristic elements for factor 2 are Pb, Zn, Cd, Mo, Sb, Sn, As, Cu, Sr and Hg. 56). Figure 15. Spatial distribution of factor 3 scores in attic dust (left) and soil (right; Šajn, 1999 with additional data) in unpolluted areas of Slovenia. Characteristic elements for factor 3 are Ni, Cr, Fe, Mn and Co.

Enrichment factors are grouped according to the factor analysis, presented in table 7. Due to clarity average enrichment factors have been used according to the groups of elements obtained by factor analysis. Figures 23 to 26 show the spatial distribution of factor scores. For each geochemical association separate map have been made. Factor loadings and maps of factor scores indicate that the factor 1 represents natural geochemical association, factor 2 man-made anomalies due to Pb-Zn mining and smelting and factor 3 with pollution, caused by ironworks.

Impacts of the Mining and Smelting Activities to the Environment 41 Table 8. Nonparametric statistical distribution of the elements in the top soil (0-5 cm; N=99) and attic dust (N=99) in the Celje area (Šajn, 2005 & Žibret, 2002; with supplemental data). Dis - distribution (Log = log-normal, N = normal-Gaussian); X, Xg average value; Md - median value; Min - Max - range; P25 - P75 - quartile distribution. Data rounded on two decimal places. 5 42 Gorazd Žibret and Robert Šajn Table 8. 2 Figure 30.

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