By Jacques Geyssant (auth.), F. Wolfgang Tegethoff (eds.)
I. G OLOGY OF CALCIUM CARBO ATE 1 by way of Jacques Geyssant 1. positive factors and features of calcium carbonate 2 1. 1 Calcium carbonate - a unique compound 2 1. 2 The crystal kinds of calcium carbonate - mineralogy nine 2. The limestones - improvement and category 15 2. 1 Sedimentation sixteen 2. 2 Diagenesis - from sediment to rock 23 2. three class of the limestones 24 2. four Metamorphism - from limestone to marble 26 2. five Carbonatites - remarkable limestones 29 three. Limestone deposits 31 three. 1 acceptance of limestones 31 three. 2 Distribution at the Earth's floor 33 three. three Limestone deposits within the geological a long time 36 three. four CaC0 cycle forty two three three. five Industrially exploitable CaC0 deposits three forty four fifty three II. TH C LT RAt hello TORY F LIME TONE by way of Johannes Rohleder 1. The historical past of chalk fifty five 2. Marble and limestone sixty nine 2. 1 Quarrying stones 70 2. 2 shipping, enterprise and alternate eighty 2. three The makes use of ninety seven 137 III. CALCI M CARBOl\ATE - A MODER source 1. The beginnings: Calcium carbonate in glazing putty and rubber 138 through Johannes Rohleder 1. 1 A chalk is born 139 1. 2 Rubber and glazing putty 142 1. three From chalk to calcium carbonate 156 2. Calcium carbonate - pigment and filler a hundred and sixty by way of Eberhard Huwald 2. 1 houses and results of a filler 164 2. 2 Chalk, limestone, marble, pec - universal good points and modifications a hundred sixty five 2. 2.
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Additional info for Calcium Carbonate: From the Cretaceous Period into the 21st Century
As the solubility of silicon dioxide in salty seawater was markedly lower than in fresh water, the mineral precipitated and formed flint chalcedony, a siliceous rock of pure chemical origin. It was seldom that shallow seas in a tropical climate could become so widespread and the conditions for the precipitation and sedimentation of calcium carbonate oozes were rarely as favourable as in the Mesozoic era, which can therefore be called, without exaggeration, the age of limestones. Fossils in limestones Fossils are the remains of living creatures of past epochs, which after death were subjected to secondary mineralisation (petrification) in a sedimentary rock (see figure, page 39).
This is incorrect, however, as previously there were also what are called medusa, but these were not only invertebrates, but also shell-less, and left behind scarcely any traces. On the other hand, the numerous fossils in the limestone layers and slates of Cambrian age have allowed a relative stratigraphic chronology of these formations to be drawn up. These Cambrian limestone formations are known in southern France, but they also occur on the margins of the large shields which are more than 600 million years old, including the Canadian, Siberian and Ethiopian shields.
And finally, artificial marble can also be created if limestone is melted in an electrical furnace at a temperature of 1050 degrees Celsius and at a pressure oflOO bar in a carbon dioxide atmosphere. 5 Carbonatites extraordinary limes ton s Besides the sediments chalk and limestone and the metamorphic marble, there are also magmatic calcium carbonate rocks - the carbonatites (see figure) . In the volcanic region of Kaiserstuhl on the Rhine a brown carbonate rock which was combined with volcanic intrusion rock puzzled geologists for a long time .