Download C Programming Language (2nd Edition) by Brian W. Kernighan, Dennis M. Ritchie PDF

By Brian W. Kernighan, Dennis M. Ritchie

The authors current the total advisor to ANSI typical c program languageperiod programming. Written by means of the builders of C, this new edition is helping readers stay alongside of the finalized ANSI ordinary for C whereas displaying tips on how to make the most of C's wealthy set of operators, economic system of expression, stronger keep watch over stream, and knowledge buildings. The 2/E has been thoroughly rewritten with extra examples and challenge units to explain the implementation of inauspicious language constructs. For years, C programmers have enable K&R consultant them to construction well-structured and effective courses. Now this related assistance is to be had to these operating with ANSI compilers. contains particular insurance of the c program languageperiod plus the reputable interval reference guide for at-a-glance aid with syntax notation, declarations, ANSI alterations, scope principles, and the checklist is going on and on.

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For example, a year is a leap year if it is divisible by 4 but not by 100, except that years divisible by 400 are leap years. = 0) || year % 400 == 0) printf("%d is a leap year\n", year); else printf("%d is not a leap year\n", year); The % operator cannot be applied to a float or double. The direction of truncation for / and the sign of the result for % are machine-dependent for negative operands, as is the action taken on overflow or underflow. The binary + and - operators have the same precedence, which is lower than the precedence of *, / and %, which is in turn lower than unary + and -.

Form a contiguous increasing sequence. Another example of char to int conversion is the function lower, which maps a single character to lower case for the ASCII character set. If the character is not an upper case letter, lower returns it unchanged. /* lower: convert c to lower case; ASCII only */ int lower(int c) { if (c >= 'A' && c <= 'Z') return c + 'a' - 'A'; else return c; } This works for ASCII because corresponding upper case and lower case letters are a fixed distance apart as numeric values and each alphabet is contiguous -- there is nothing but letters between A and Z.

This is illustrated in the function reverse(s), which reverses the string s in place. , are not comma operators, and do not guarantee left to right evaluation. Comma operators should be used sparingly. The most suitable uses are for constructs strongly related to each other, as in the for loop in reverse, and in macros where a multistep computation has to be a single expression. A comma expression might also be appropriate for the exchange of elements in reverse, where the exchange can be thought of a single operation: for (i = 0, j = strlen(s)-1; i < j; i++, j--) c = s[i], s[i] = s[j], s[j] = c; Exercise 3-3.

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