By Rajesh P. N. Rao
The assumption of interfacing minds with machines has lengthy captured the human mind's eye. fresh advances in neuroscience and engineering are making this a truth, establishing the door to recovery and augmentation of human actual and psychological functions. clinical purposes similar to cochlear implants for the deaf and neurally managed prosthetic limbs for the paralyzed have gotten virtually commonplace.
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) also are more and more getting used in defense, lie detection, alertness tracking, telepresence, gaming, schooling, artwork, and human augmentation. This creation to the sector is designed as a textbook for upper-level undergraduate and first-year graduate classes in neural engineering or brain-computer interfacing for college students from a variety of disciplines. it could possibly even be used for self-study and as a reference by means of neuroscientists, desktop scientists, engineers, and scientific practitioners. Key positive aspects contain questions and workouts in each one bankruptcy and a helping site.
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Additional info for Brain-Computer Interfacing: An Introduction
What region of the brain contributes the most to the EEG signal? 10. What is the 10–20 system used in EEG? 11. Describe the frequency range and brain phenomena associated with the following EEG waves: a. Alpha b. Beta c. Gamma 38 Backgroun d. Mu e. Theta 12. Enumerate the strengths and weaknesses of MEG compared to EEG as a noninvasive brain recording technique. 13. Describe the relationship between the signal measured by fMRI and the underlying neural activity. 14. What are some of the strengths and weaknesses of fMRI compared to EEG?
Recall that the spikes or action potentials from neurons cause neurotransmitters to be released at synapses, in turn causing postsynaptic potentials within the dendrites of the input-receiving neurons (see Chapter 2). EEG signals reflect the summation of postsynaptic potentials from many thousands of neurons that are oriented radially to the scalp. Currents tangential to the scalp are not detected by EEG. Additionally, currents originating deep in the brain are also not detected by EEG because voltage fields fall off with the square of the distance from the source.
This information is used to generate two-or three-dimensional images indicating the amount of brain activity. The most commonly used radiotracer is a labeled form of glucose. The spatial resolution of PET can be comparable to fMRI, but the temporal resolution is typically quite low (on the order of several tens of seconds). Other drawbacks 32 Backgroun include the need to inject radioactive chemicals into the body and the rapid decay of radioactivity, which limits the amount of time available for experiments.