By D.J. Raine;Edwin Thomas

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**Extra resources for Black Holes - An Introduction**

**Example text**

The circuit, redrawn for this particular case, is shown below. 2R R 2R R 2R 2R 2R Vout 5V gnd Applying our simple resistor combination tricks, this circuit quickly reduces to one with only two resistors. 2R R Vout 5V gnd We can now easily find the short-circuit current, and the open-circuit voltage. In the short-circuit case, R is shorted out, so Isc = 5V/2R. For the open-circuit case, we can use the voltage divider relationship to quickly calculate Voc = 5V R/(2R+R) = 5V/3. The Thevenin resistance, RT = Voc/Isc = (5/3 V) / (5V/2R) = 2R/3.

For example, the slope and the x-intercept completely define a line. With the circuit shown below, by choosing the right resistor value and the right voltage, we can produce any linear I-V curve. This is called a Thevenin equivalent circuit. RT VT To prove this, let’s find the I-V curve produced using this circuit. The test setup is shown below. A test voltage is forced across the two terminals in question, and the current is measured. The current through the resistor will be: V test – V T I test = ---------------------RT Plotting Vtest versus Itest gives the I-V curve shown here.

How do I solve more complex resistive circuits? Are there any tricks that can make this easier? What is an independent source and what is superposition? What is a digital to analog convertor? What is a Voltage Divider? The Stamp lives in a digital world of 5V or 0V. But what if you wanted to use the Stamp to generate voltages in-between? How do you go about this? In the previous chapter, we saw that a voltage drop occurs as current flows through a resistor, and that the magnitude of this voltage is given by Ohm’s Law.