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And Jacobsen, C. , Gaunt, J. and Rondon, M. (2006) ‘Bio-char sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems – a review’, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, vol 11, pp403–427 Leinweber, P. -R. , Skjemstad, J. , Luizão, F. , Petersen, J. and Neves, E. G. (2006) ‘Black carbon increases cation exchange capacity in soils’, Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol 70, pp1719–1730 Liebig, J. von (1878) Chemische Briefe, C. F. Winter’sche Verlagshandlung, Leipzig and Heidelberg, Germany Matson, P.
Fossil fuels such as coal, gas and petrol, as well as biomass, can produce black C. The term includes the solid carbonaceous residue of combustion and heat, as well as the condensation products, known as soot. Black C includes the entire spectrum of charred materials, ranging from char, charcoal and biochar, to soot, graphitic black C and graphite (Schmidt and Noack, 2000). The term ‘charring’ is used either in connection with making charcoal or in connection with char originating from fires. 3 The term ‘pyrolysis’ is typically used either for analytical procedures to investigate the organic chemistry of organic substances (Leinweber and Schulten, 1999) or for bioenergy systems that capture the off-gases emitted during charring and used to produce hydrogen, syngas, bio-oils, heat or electricity (Bridgwater et al, 1999).
2005) ‘Global consequences of land use’, Science, vol 309, pp570–574 Franklin, R. E. (1950) ‘The interpretation of diffuse X–ray diagrams of carbon’, Acta Crystallography, vol 3, pp107–121 Franklin, R. E. (1951) ‘Crystallite growth in graphitizing and non-graphitizing carbons’, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, vol 209, pp196–218 Gaunt, J. and Lehmann, J. , Guggenberger, G. and Zech,W. (2001) ‘The Terra Preta phenomenon: A model for sustainable agriculture in the humid tropics’, Naturwissenschaften, vol 88, pp37–41 Harris, P.