By Toshi H. Arimura
Focusing on pollution, strength potency and weather swap, this ebook presents an advent to Japan’s environmental regulations and rules, and provides fiscal analyses and RIAs (Regulatory effect research) of environmental rules applied or deliberate by way of the nationwide and native governments. the hole bankruptcy studies environmental economics and descriptions the present prestige of RIAs in Japan. bankruptcy 2 analyzes the NOx-PM Act, which prohibits using outdated and polluting cars in metropolitan components. bankruptcy three examines a Tokyo metropolitan executive rules which calls for set up of pollutants keep an eye on apparatus in older vehicles that fail to fulfill emission criteria. bankruptcy four lines the influence of the NOx-PM Act at the used motor vehicle industry and used automobile exports. bankruptcy five offers an financial research of a road toll relief, revealing an unforeseen unfavorable social impression: it elevated traffic jam and linked environmental difficulties. the ultimate 3 chapters handle guidelines and rules regarding power potency and weather switch bankruptcy 6 evaluates the effectiveness of Japan’s power Conservation Act, initially brought in 1979 and amended quite a few occasions to handle weather swap. bankruptcy 7 anticipates the effect of a proposed economy-wide carbon tax, utilizing input-output research to evaluate non permanent fiscal affects in every one region. additionally provided here's an exam of the effectiveness of a discounted carbon tax for energy-intensive industries, with a dialogue of the effect of the suggestion on families. the ultimate bankruptcy discusses the function and boundaries of monetary types for comparing Japan’s mid-term GHG (Greenhouse fuel) emission goal in the course of the post-Kyoto interval. this can be the 1st ebook to judge jap environmental guidelines from an monetary point of view, utilizing quite a few present quantitative techniques. Its findings and proposals will profit scholars, coverage makers and executive officers in constructing and built international locations the place the general public faces comparable environmental problems.
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Extra info for An Evaluation of Japanese Environmental Regulations: Quantitative Approaches from Environmental Economics
1 because the VTR targets vehicles, thus affecting many individuals and industries (although logistics is plausibly the primary industry concerned) that use vehicles, and because the timing of compliance substantially differs across vehicle owners. 2 A Brief History of Japanese Air Pollution Regulation: Background of the VTR 21 curve, we estimate the cost by summing the compliance costs spent on all regulated vehicles. The remainder of the chapter is organized as follows. 2 provides an overview and background of the VTR.
If the opportunity cost of replacement is measured at the point of replacement, then it is equal to the difference between the following costs: (1) the cost of replacing vehicles at that point and (2) the cost of replacing vehicles without the VTR. 10 Because younger vehicles have higher market values, vehicle owners gain additional income from selling their vehicles with the VTR than without the VTR. This difference in income can be adjusted by defining the cost of complying with the VTR as follows: the opportunity cost of accelerating the replacement timing as a result of the VTR subtracted by the profit from selling old vehicles.
7 See the Ministry of Environment (2005) for further details on the enforcement areas and regulated vehicles. 8 In 2001, “the 2005 emissions standards” were issued, prohibiting the use and sale of vehicles that do not meet the standards imposed in 2002 and thereafter. 2 A Brief History of Japanese Air Pollution Regulation: Background of the VTR Tokyo 23 Osaka Nagoya Fig. 06 PM concentration (mg/m3) Fig. 3 2 Ex Ante Policy Evaluation of the Vehicle Type Regulation Compliance Methods This section provides an overview of the methods for complying with the VTR.