By George S. Jr. Everly, Jeffrey M. Lating
This up to date version covers a number new subject matters, together with pressure and the immune process, post-traumatic pressure and drawback intervention, Eye move Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), severe Incident rigidity Debriefing (CISD), problem administration Briefings in accordance with mass mess ups and terrorism, serious Incident tension administration (CISM), spirituality and faith as tension administration instruments, nutritional components and tension, and up to date info on psychopharmacologic intervention within the human tension reaction. it's a finished and available consultant for college students, practitioners, and researchers within the fields of psychology, psychiatry, medication, nursing, social paintings, and public overall healthiness.
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Extra info for A Clinical Guide to the Treatment of the Human Stress Response 2nd Edition (Springer Series on Stress and Coping)
The “fight-or-flight” response is thought to be a mobilization of the body to prepare for muscular activity in response to a perceived threat. This mechanism allows the organism either to fight or to flee from the perceived threat (Cannon, 1953). Research has demonstrated that the homeostatic, neuroendocrine “fight-or-flight” response can be activated in human beings by numerous and diverse psychological influences, including varied psychosocial stimuli (Ametz, Fjeliner, Eneroth, & Kaliner, 1986; Froberg, Karlsson, Levi, & Lidberg, 1971; Levi, 1972; Mason, 1968a, 1972; Roessler & Greenfield, 1962).
Current speculations are reviewed in Chapter 3. Despite this uncertainty, the clinician should gain useful insight into the treatment of the stress response by understanding the psychophysiological processes involved once the stress 42 CHAPTER 2 response becomes activated. 9 provides a unique “global” perspective into the multiaxial nature of psychophysiological stress. 6, feedback loops II and III simply indicate the ability of the physiological stress response to further stimulate the cognitive–affective domain as well as the neurological triggering mechanisms, so as to further promulgate the stress response.
From here, sympathetic neural pathways descend from the anterior hypothalamus through the cranial and sacral spinal cord regions. Parasympathetic nerves then innervate the end organs. Generally speaking, the release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine from the sympathetic telodendria is responsible for changes in most end-organ activity. Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter in the remaining cases and in parasympathetic postganglionic transmissions as well (see Ganong, 1997). ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HUMAN STRESS RESPONSE 31 The effects of neural activation via the sympathetic system are those of generalized arousal within the end organs—what Hess (1957) referred to as an “ergotropic” response.